This category includes all aspects of Cryogenics: the production and study of extreme sub-zero temperatures. This includes the production, use, and storage of liquid gases (nitrogen, oxygen, helium), mechanical freezers for those temperatures, and the attempts to reach absolute zero. It also includes a recent use of cryogenic technology in which metals are dipped in liquid nitrogen to improve various qualities.
A good general discussion of the physics and concept of "temperature."
Consultants on carbon dioxide (CO2) production, sales, recovery, natural CO2 well sources, and emerging technologies which yield a CO2 by-product, such as fuel cells. In Tavernier, Florida.
National and international pipefreezing service to all sectors of industry. In North West England. Very informative page.
Supplying pipefreezing and cryogenic services to the pipeline and process industries throughout the world. Pipefreezing is a means of isolating part of a pipework system by freezing the pipe contents over a short section, so that the contents form a solid plug. Offices in the UK and U.S.A
Scientific society which promotes the advancement of cryogenics and cryoengineering in the UK and abroad. Publisher of Cryogenics Safety Manual and Cryogenics Fluids Databook.
Environmental simulation equipment for sale or hire. In-house climatic testing from -80C to 300C, and temperature and humidity calibration. At Glenrothes in Fife, Scotland, UK.
On-line version of magazine which reports the latest advances in technology, market development and new products for industrial, medical and specialty gases and cryogenic equipment.
CCSI performs consulting, design, and plant operations for industrial cryogenic processes and gas purification and liquefaction. Areas of expertise include plant design and upgrading, natural gas, hydrogen, and cryogenic storage. In Weston, Connecticut.
International journal of low temperature engineering including applied superconductivity, cryoelectronics, cryophysics, cryogenics in medicine, and refrigeration and liquefaction technology. Mostly a subscription/information site.
Inventory management software for biological, clinical and IVF samples and specimen.
Part of the Polish Academy of Sciences, in Wroclaw, Poland. Includes information about the departments of superconductivity, and low temperatures.
A site on cryogenics containing papers published by Professor Traugott H.K. Frederking.
Detailed explanations and papers on various aspects of cryogenic technology, including mechanical cooling, oxygen contamination, cryogenic systems, and helium superfluidity. Many papers available for downloading.
Design and manufacture of cryogenic temperature sensors and instrumentation, including instrumentation and systems for studying magnetic properties of materials. Products include gaussmeters, Hall probes, vibrating sample magnetometers, and electromagnets. In Westerville, Ohio, with distributors world wide.
An article by Robert C. Richardson of Cornell University, written in 1981.
UK freeze isolation specialists. In situ valve replacement or other pipeline repairs and modifications without needing to drain down systems. In London.
Cryogenic engineering firm using vacuum jacketed piping systems for liquid nitrogen. Articles on cryogenic function, liquid nitrogen pipe systems, cryobiology sample viability and preventative maintenance of liquid nitrogen equipment.
Manufacturer of cryopumps, cryocooolers, pulse tubes, shield coolers and laboratory cryostats
Awarded to David M. Lee, Douglas D. Osheroff, and Robert C. Richardson. The press release contains a good (technical) discussion of the superfluidity of helium-3.
The paper announcing the discovery of superfluid Helium 3, the basis for the 1996 Nobel Prize in Physics.
A detailed education site on thermal science (both cold and hot), with many explanations, conversion tables, databases, links, and an excellent FAQ/glossary of terms and concepts dealing with temperature.
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