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Livingstone, city in southern Zambia, the capital of Southern Province. Livingstone is situated just north of the Zambezi River, which forms the border with Zimbabwe, and 11 km (7 miles) north of Victoria Falls. It is a major tourist center serving visitors to the falls. Although tourism is the largest source of employment, there is substantial industrial development, including textile and clothing manufacturing, vehicle assembly, food processing, furniture making, and sawmilling. Farms in the region produce maize (corn), tobacco, and beef. The city has excellent road and rail links by way of Lusaka to the rest of Zambia, and by way of Bulawayo to Zimbabwe, Botswana, Mozambique, and South Africa. Its airport has domestic and some international (within southern Africa) flights. Other local attractions include Mosi-oa-Tunya National Park, located adjacent to Victoria Falls, and Livingstone Game Park. The Livingstone Museum has displays of African prehistorical and historical artifacts, and memorabilia related to Scottish missionary David Livingstone and his exploration of the region in the 1850s. Livingstone's inhabitants are primarily of the Lozi ethnic group. Livingstone was founded in 1905, upon completion of the railway bridge across the Zambezi, when residents of an earlier riverside settlement called Old Drift moved to the new site beside the rail line. From 1907 until 1935, it was a British colonial capital, initially of North Western Rhodesia and from 1911 of all of Northern Rhodesia (now Zambia). Population (1990) 82,218.


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