The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood was formed at the end of 1848 in London. The prime movers were three young artists - John Everett Millais, William Holman Hunt and Dante Gabriel Rosetti. They recruited painters James Collinson and Frederic George Stephens, sculptor Thomas Woolner and Rosetti's brother William. They chose the name to protest against the principles that had dominated European art since the time of Raphael, master of Italian renaissance. Their aim was to paint 'directly from nature', conveying also a spiritual or moral message. Around 1860 the second phase included William Morris and Edward Burne-Jones, who began producing pictures on chivalric and mythical themes.